General Knowledge Current Affairs

Wednesday, August 23, 2023

President of India to Confer National Geoscience Awards - 2022

The President of India, Smt. Droupadi Murmu conferred the prestigious National Geoscience Awards - 2022 at the Rashtrapati Bhavan Cultural Centre, New Delhi on 24th July 2023 in the presence of the Minister of Coal, Mines & Parliamentary Affairs Shri Pralhad Joshi and the Minister of State for Mines, Coal & Railways Shri Raosaheb Patil Danve. The Ministry of Mines confers National Geoscience Awards every year in three categories:

  • National Geoscience Award for Life Time Achievement,
  • National Young Geoscientist Award
  • National Geoscience Award in various fields of geosciences.

Instituted in 1966, the National Geoscience Awards (NGA) is a symbol of recognition and appreciation for exceptional individuals and organizations that have demonstrated excellence, dedication and innovation in the realm of Geosciences. The awards are presented in the field of Mineral Discovery and Exploration, Basic Geosciences, Applied Geosciences and Mining, Mineral Beneficiation and Sustainable Mineral Development.

This year for NGA 2022, 168 nominations were received under different award categories and examined through a three-stage screening process. Nominees for 10 National Geoscience Awards under different categories, which include one National Geoscience Award for Lifetime Achievement, eight National Geoscience Awards under different fields and one National Young Geoscientist Awards have been selected. These 10 NGA awards will be presented to 22 Geoscientists by the President of India.

The National Geoscience Award for Lifetime Achievement will be conferred upon Dr. Om Narain Bhargava, well known for his pioneering work in the Himalayas spanning over the last four decades. The National Young Geoscientist Award will be presented to Dr. Amiya Kumar Samal, Assistant Professor of Banaras Hindu University who has made a significant contribution in understanding the variation of Sub-Continental Lithospheric Mantle (SCLM) below different Archean cratons of the Indian shield.

Tuesday, August 22, 2023

e-Waste Management in India

Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) estimates the e-waste generation at the national level based on the countrywide sales data provided by producers, and the average life of notified electrical and electronic equipment (EEE), as mandated under the E-waste Management Rules, 2016. As per the information available with CPCB, e-waste generated in the country from twenty-one (21) types of EEE notified under the E-Waste (Management) Rules, 2016 in the financial year (FY) 2020-21 and 2021-22 was estimated as 13,46,496.31 Tonnes and 16,01,155.36 tonnes respectively, which is not substantial as compared to other major economies of the world.

Ministry has comprehensively revised the previous set of Rules and notified the E-Waste (Management) Rules, 2022 in November 2022 and the same is enforce since 1st April, 2023. These new rules intend to manage e-waste in an environmentally sound manner and put in place an improved Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) regime for e-waste recycling wherein all the manufacturers, producers, refurbishers, and recyclers are required to register on the portal developed by CPCB. The new provisions would facilitate and channelize the informal sector to the formal sector for doing business and ensure the recycling of E-waste in an environmentally sound manner. Provisions for environmental compensation and verification & audit have also been introduced. These rules also promote Circular Economy through the EPR regime and scientific recycling/disposal of e-waste.

An Action Plan for enforcement of E-Waste (Management) Rules, across the country is in place and is being implemented by all the States/UTs and State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs)/Pollution Control Committees (PCCs). An e-waste Management review portal has also been developed for uploading the status and progress of the e-waste action plan. The quantity of e-waste collected and processed during FY 2021-22 is 5,27,131.57 Tonnes.

Tuesday, August 8, 2023

Fashion Design: Unveiling the Pathway to a Creative Career

Are you passionate about style, colors, and fabrics? Do you have a flair for creativity and a keen eye for detail? If so, then a career in fashion design might be the perfect pathway for you to explore. Fashion design is an exciting and dynamic field that allows individuals to express their artistic vision through clothing and accessories. In this article, we'll delve into the captivating world of fashion design and how it can lead you to a fulfilling and creative career.

The Art of Fashion Design

Fashion design is much more than just sketching pretty dresses or trendy outfits. It's a form of art that combines aesthetics, functionality, and self-expression. Fashion designers use their artistic talents to create unique and innovative clothing that resonates with people's emotions and desires. Each garment tells a story, reflecting the designer's personality and prevailing cultural trends.

The Journey of a Fashion Designer

Embarking on a career in fashion design requires dedication, perseverance, and a strong educational foundation. Many successful designers start by earning a degree in fashion design or a related field. During their education, aspiring designers learn about textile science, pattern making, sewing techniques, and the history of fashion. This knowledge lays the groundwork for creating garments that are not only visually appealing but also well-constructed and comfortable.

Developing Your Unique Style

One of the keys to becoming a successful fashion designer is developing a distinct and recognizable style. Your style represents your design philosophy and sets you apart from others in the industry. It's essential to experiment with different techniques and materials to discover what truly resonates with your creative instincts. As you progress, you'll fine-tune your approach and gain confidence in your artistic vision.

Embracing Sustainability and Ethical Practices

In recent years, the fashion industry has been making strides towards sustainability and ethical practices. As a modern fashion designer, being mindful of the environmental and social impacts of your work is crucial. Consider using eco-friendly materials, reducing waste, and promoting fair labor practices. By incorporating sustainability into your designs, you not only contribute to a better planet but also appeal to the growing number of eco-conscious consumers.

Building Your Portfolio

As you develop your skills and style, it's essential to build a strong portfolio showcasing your best work. A well-curated portfolio is your ticket to gaining recognition in the industry and landing coveted opportunities. Collaborate with other designers, photographers, and models to create captivating photoshoots that highlight your designs in different settings. Your portfolio should demonstrate your versatility, creativity, and ability to create a cohesive collection.

The Business of Fashion

Beyond the artistic aspect, understanding the business side of fashion is vital for your success. Running a fashion label or working for a renowned brand involves marketing, budgeting, and forecasting trends. Familiarize yourself with fashion marketing strategies, trend analysis, and customer behavior. These skills will empower you to make informed decisions and ensure your designs reach the right audience.

The Ever-Evolving Industry

The fashion industry is a dynamic and ever-changing landscape. Trends come and go, consumer preferences shift, and technology continues to impact the way we design and produce clothing. As a fashion designer, embracing change and staying open to innovation is essential. Attend fashion events, network with industry professionals, and stay up-to-date with the latest developments to remain relevant and ahead of the curve.


Fashion design offers a mesmerizing journey into the world of creativity and self-expression. It's a pathway that allows you to blend artistry with functionality, shaping garments that touch people's lives and emotions. Whether you dream of launching your own fashion line or contributing to renowned brands, the world of fashion design has endless possibilities. Embrace your passion, hone your skills, and let your imagination guide you on this captivating career path.

Monday, August 7, 2023

3rd G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors (FMCBG) Meeting held in Gandhinagar, Gujarat

The Third G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors (FMCBG) meeting under the Indian Presidency was held during 17-18 July 2023 in Gandhinagar, Gujarat. The meeting was jointly chaired by Union Minister of Finance and Corporate Affairs Smt. Nirmala Sitharaman, and Governor, Reserve Bank of India, Shri Shaktikanta Das.

Over 500 delegates, including Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors from G20 member countries, Invitee Countries, and Heads of various International Organisations (IOs) participated in the meeting. The FMCBG meeting was preceded by the Third G20 Finance and Central Bank Deputies (FCBD) meeting during 14-15 July 2023 in Gandhinagar, Gujarat.

Under the Indian Presidency’s theme of “One Earth, One Family, One Future”, G20 Ministers and Governors pledged to prioritise the well-being of the people and the planet and reaffirmed their commitment to enhancing international economic cooperation, strengthening global development for all and steering the global economy towards strong, sustainable, balanced, and inclusive growth (SSBIG).

The meeting was organised in five thematic sessions covering Global Economy and Global Health, Sustainable Finance and Infrastructure, International Financial Architecture, International Taxation, and Financial Sector & Financial Inclusion.

The Union Finance Minister, in her welcome remarks, reiterated the collective responsibility of G20 to steer the global economy towards strong, sustainable, balanced, and inclusive growth. The meeting discussed the key deliverables of the Finance Track under the Indian G20 Presidency for 2023. The Indian Presidency received wide support on all the agenda items.

Members discussed the global economic outlook and risks, including the macroeconomic implications of food and energy insecurity as well as climate change. Members endorsed the ‘G20 Report on Macroeconomic Risks Stemming from Climate Change and Transition Pathways’.

Under the priority of strengthening Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) to address global challenges of the 21st century, members recognised the urgent need to strengthen and evolve the MDB ecosystem. Members appreciated the efforts of the G20 Independent Expert Group on Strengthening MDBs constituted by the Indian Presidency earlier this year. The Expert Group has prepared Volume 1 of the Report, and Volume 2 is expected in October 2023. Noting Volume 1’s recommendations, members shared that the MDBs may choose to discuss these recommendations to enhance their effectiveness. A High-Level Seminar will be held on the sidelines of the Fourth FMCBG meeting in October 2023 on strengthening the financial capacity of MDBs. G20 members also endorsed a ‘Roadmap for Implementation of Recommendations of the G20 Independent Review of MDBs’ Capital Adequacy Frameworks (CAF)’. This Roadmap will help unlock more lending resources in MDBs.

Managing global debt vulnerabilities is a significant priority area for 2023, reflecting the Indian Presidency’s endeavor to voice the concerns of the Global South. G20 Members have actively deliberated on how to strengthen multilateral coordination to effectively address the deteriorating debt situation and facilitate coordinated debt treatment for debt-distressed countries. G20 Members welcomed the progress achieved on various ongoing debt treatment cases under the Common Framework and beyond, and called for swift and timely resolution of these cases. They also emphasised the importance of addressing debt vulnerabilities in low and middle-income countries in an effective, comprehensive and systematic manner. The G20 encouraged the efforts of the Global Sovereign Debt Roundtable (GSDR) towards strengthening communication among key stakeholders to facilitate effective debt treatment. The GSDR is chaired by India, IMF and the World Bank.

The Indian Presidency has brought the Digital Public Infrastructure (DPI) agenda into the G20 discussions. Members acknowledged the transformative role of DPI in rapidly advancing financial inclusion and productivity gains. The Ministers and Governors lauded India’s pioneering efforts in leveraging DPIs to accelerate financial inclusion to the last mile. While noting that harnessing DPIs can help countries to leapfrog their development trajectories, the members unanimously endorsed the ‘G20 Policy Recommendations for Advancing Financial Inclusion and Productivity Gains through Digital Public Infrastructure’. developed under the Indian Presidency. These policy recommendations will be instrumental in guiding the G20 and non-G20 countries to leverage DPI for fast pacing their development processes and achieve strong and inclusive growth. The G20 FMCBGs endorsed the new G20 2023 Financial Inclusion Action Plan (FIAP) for the three years 2024-26, the FIAP provides an action-oriented and forward-looking roadmap for rapidly advancing financial inclusion of individuals and MSMEs in G20 and beyond by focusing on action areas which inter alia focus on promoting technological, innovations and digital infrastructure including DPI. Also, India has been appointed as one of the Co-Chairs of the Global Partnership for Financial Inclusion (GPFI) and in its capacity of Co-Chair, India will lead the implementation of the new FIAP for the next three years starting from 2024.

The Indian Presidency has prioritised the need to consider the macro-financial implications of crypto assets along with financial stability concerns. The Presidency has also focused on bringing the specific concerns of the Global South onto the crypto assets’ agenda. As a result, the IMF had, in February, presented a paper on the macrofinancial implications to the 2nd G20 FMCBG. The Financial Stability Board (FSB) has also included sections on EMDE concerns in its forthcoming reports and deliberations. In continuation of this process, in the July meeting, the G20 members welcomed the high-level recommendations of the FSB on crypto-asset activities and global stablecoin arrangements.

While the work of preparation of the IMF-FSB Synthesis paper is underway, the Indian Presidency has submitted a “Presidency Note” to the G20 membership laying down important inputs for a Roadmap on crypto assets. The Roadmap, to be contained in the Synthesis Paper will support a coordinated and comprehensive policy and regulatory framework taking into account the full range of risks, and risks specific to the emerging market and developing economies (EMDEs) and ongoing global implementation of FATF standards to address money laundering and terrorism financing risks. The G20 now looks forward to receiving the IMF-FSB Synthesis Paper, along with the Roadmap, before the Leaders’ Summit in September 2023.

To further enrich the ongoing policy work around crypto assets, a Round Table discussion titled “Policy Dialogues on Crypto Assets” was organized on the sidelines of the 3rd G20 FMCBG meeting at Gandhinagar. The aim of the round table session was to discuss and deliberate on some of the key questions pertaining to the crypto assets, in an open and candid manner. The session saw active participation from the G20 Finance Ministers, Governors, and the Heads of IMF, FSB, and FATF – institutions that are instrumental in the on-going work on crypto asset ecosystem. The views generated in the round table discussion will provide important inputs to the Synthesis paper.

The Indian G20 Presidency has also brought climate finance discussions to the forefront. Members welcomed the recommendations on the mechanisms to support timely and adequate mobilisation of resources for climate finance, prepared by the Sustainable Finance Working Group. With the commitment to scale up sustainable finance, members also welcomed the Analytical Framework for SDG-aligned finance.

Members also discussed taking forward global efforts in pandemic prevention, preparedness and response through enhanced collaboration between Finance and Health Ministries. Members welcomed the discussion on the Framework on Economic Vulnerabilities and Risks (FEVR) arising from pandemics, while taking into account country-specific circumstances.

On the infrastructure agenda, members showed strong support for work under the Indian Presidency’s priority of ‘Financing the Cities of Tomorrow’. The Principles designed by the Indian Presidency will enable cities to develop customised policies that encourage alternative financing sources and enable greater public-private collaboration to bridge the infrastructure financing gap in our cities.

A G20 Infrastructure Investors’ Dialogue on ‘Leveraging Funding and Financing Mechanisms and Approaches for the Cities of Tomorrow’ was also held on 16 July, 2023. Panel discussions focused on mechanisms for de-risking projects, better urban planning, innovations in blended finance, harnessing technological innovations, capacity building and augmenting support from governments & MDBs in developing climate-resilient and sustainable city infrastructure. Learnings from practical experiences of countries enriched the discourse immensely.

On the tax agenda, members appreciated the significant progress made with respect to the two-pillar international tax package and called for the finalization of the pending work as per the agreed timelines. Members welcomed a plan for additional support and technical assistance for developing countries and discussed the need to ensure that G20 efforts to enhance tax transparency translate into effective outcomes.

Members noted with great interest, the discussions held at the G20 High-Level Tax Symposium on Combatting Tax Evasion, Corruption and Money Laundering organised by the Indian Presidency on 16 July, 2023 on the sidelines of the FMCBG meeting. Panelists included Heads of FATF and OECD, the European Commissioner for Economy and the Finance Minister of Indonesia. This Symposium initiates a debate on the effective multilateral response required to counter tax evasion, corruption and money laundering. The panelists acknowledged that financial crimes are complex, operate across international borders and deprive governments both in developed and developing countries of much needed resources. They stressed the need for greater cooperation, both domestically and internationally. The panel discussion also delved into strategies that can be developed for a coordinated response for fighting tax crimes and other financial crimes.


Ms. Nivruti Rai appointed as Managing Director & CEO of Invest India

Ms. Nivruti Rai joined as the Managing Director & CEO of Invest India on July 12, 2023. She has taken over the charge from Ms. Manmeet K Nanda, Joint Secretary, Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT) who had assumed this additional charge of MD & CEO ad-interim in March 2023.

Ms. Rai is the recipient of the prestigious Nari Shakti Puraskar for her remarkable contributions in the field of technology. Ms. Nivruti Rai joins Invest India after an illustrious 29 years at Intel as a global business and technology leader. She led Intel India as Country Head for the past seven years driving the growth and investment of Intel in India. During her tenure at Intel India, she contributed significantly towards indigenous technology development, start-up ecosystem, electronics manufacturing ecosystem, and policy formulation, especially in the areas of critical and emerging technologies. She has been part of the leadership team in various industrial bodies and government committees and brings a wealth of experience in working closely with industry associations, business leaders, and government leaders.

Created under the vision of Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi for a New India, Invest India today is well acknowledged by stakeholders for its tangible contributions and instrumental role in executing the Government’s flagship initiatives including Make in India, Startup India, National Single Window System, Project Monitoring Group, and Prime Minister’s Science, Technology and Innovation Advisory Council. Invest India leverages private sector expertise to execute Government’s vision, embodying high levels of transparency, ethics, and corporate governance.

The Board of Invest India is chaired by Shri Rajesh Kumar Singh, Secretary, DPIIT. Other members of the Board include Shri P. K. Tripathi, Secretary (Coordination), Cabinet Secretariat; Ms. Arti Bhatnagar, Additional Secretary & Financial Advisor, DPIIT; Shri Md. Noor Rahman Sheikh, Joint Secretary, Ministry of External Affairs; Shri Anand Mahindra, Chairperson, Mahindra Group; Shri Pankaj R. Patel, Chairperson, Cadilla Healthcare; Shri Harshvardhan Neotia, Chairperson, Ambuja Neotia Group; Ms. Rekha M. Menon, Chairperson & Senior MD, Accenture; Ms. Debjani Ghosh, President, NASSCOM; and Shri Chandrajit Banerjee, Director General, CII.

Monday, July 31, 2023

Women's World Cup Football 2023 and its Favorite Teams

The Women's World Cup 2023 is one of the most anticipated sporting events of the year, showcasing the pinnacle of women's football talent from around the globe. As the tournament approaches, fans worldwide are buzzing with excitement to witness their favorite teams compete for the prestigious title. In this article, we will delve into the upcoming Women's World Cup 2023 and explore the favorite teams that are expected to dominate the tournament.

The Significance of Women's World Cup 2023

The Women's World Cup is more than just a football tournament; it represents a celebration of women's sporting prowess and the continued growth of women's football on the global stage. With the 2023 edition set to take place in Australia and New Zealand, the host nations are gearing up to put on a spectacular show that will captivate audiences worldwide.

The Top Contenders: Team Analysis

In this section, we will take a closer look at some of the favorite teams and analyze their strengths and key players.

United States

The United States women's national soccer team is undoubtedly one of the top contenders for the Women's World Cup 2023. Having won the tournament four times previously, they boast a squad filled with world-class talent. Players like Alex Morgan, Megan Rapinoe, and Carli Lloyd have proven their mettle on numerous occasions, making the USWNT a formidable force on the pitch.


Germany has a rich history in women's football, and they have consistently performed at a high level in major tournaments. Led by skilled players such as Dzsenifer Marozsán and Alexandra Popp, the German team is well-organized and tactically astute, making them a team to watch out for in the upcoming World Cup.


The England women's national football team has made significant strides in recent years and is considered a serious contender for the title. With the likes of Steph Houghton and Fran Kirby in their ranks, the Lionesses possess a balanced squad capable of taking on any challenge.


France has a reputation for playing attractive, attacking football. They have a talented roster featuring players like Wendie Renard and Eugénie Le Sommer, who can change the course of a match in an instant. Their flair and creativity make them a fan favorite and a strong contender for the championship.

Underdogs to Watch

Apart from the favorites, the Women's World Cup often witnesses surprises from underdog teams. In this section, we'll highlight a few teams that might spring a surprise in the tournament.


The Netherlands women's national team has steadily improved over the years and demonstrated their potential by winning the UEFA Women's Euro in 2017. With talented players like Vivianne Miedema and Lieke Martens, they have the ability to upset some of the bigger teams.


As one of the host nations, Australia will enjoy tremendous support from the home crowd. The Matildas have a never-say-die attitude and a blend of experienced players and promising youngsters, making them a team capable of causing upsets.

Key Matchups and Anticipated Rivalries

The Women's World Cup is known for producing thrilling encounters and fierce rivalries. In this section, we'll explore some of the most anticipated matchups.

United States vs. Germany

A clash between two powerhouses of women's football, the United States against Germany promises to be a blockbuster encounter. Both teams have a history of producing classic matches, and this showdown is likely to be no different.

England vs. France

This matchup between two European heavyweights is bound to generate excitement. The contrasting styles of play and the desire to outdo each other on the grand stage add to the allure of this rivalry.

The Road to Glory: Tournament Format

The Women's World Cup 2023 will feature a group stage followed by knockout rounds. The format provides an opportunity for teams to showcase their skills in the initial matches and then battle it out for a spot in the final stages.


The Women's World Cup 2023 promises to be an exhilarating tournament that will captivate football enthusiasts across the globe. With the top contenders raring to go and underdogs eager to prove their worth, we are in for a treat. Let us come together to celebrate women's football and witness the magic unfold on the field.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

Q. When and where will the Women's World Cup 2023 be held?
The Women's World Cup 2023 will be jointly hosted by Australia and New Zealand.

Q. How many teams will participate in the tournament?
A total of 32 teams will compete in the Women's World Cup 2023.

Q. Which team has won the most Women's World Cup titles?
The United States holds the record for the most Women's World Cup titles, having won it four times.

Q. Who is the all-time leading goal scorer in Women's World Cup history?
Marta from Brazil holds the title of the all-time leading goal scorer in Women's World Cup history.

Q. Is there a prize for the winning team?
Yes, the victorious team in the Women's World Cup 2023 will be awarded the prestigious championship trophy along with a cash prize.

Sunday, June 25, 2023

Telangana Generates Electricity from Vegetable Waste

The Bowenpally Vegetable Market has caught Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s attention for its innovative waste management system. PM praised the one-of-its-kind bioelectricity, biofuel and bio-manure generation project during one of Mann Ki Baat episodes.

A few years ago, generating electricity from vegetable waste would have been a far-fetched idea, but not anymore. Hyderabad’s Bowenpally Vegetable Market has turned this into reality. Nearly 10 tons of waste is collected every day in the market, which earlier used to end up in landfills, but is now the major source of electricity for the vegetable market.

The waste generated (rotten and unsold vegetables) in the Bowenpally vegetable market and nearby yards are collected from across the city. The vegetables are chopped into smaller pieces and run over the conveyor belt to the shredder. The waste then undergoes a shredding process where all the vegetables are crushed into smaller and uniform sizes and sent to a grinder. This grinder further crushes the content into pulp, which is also called slurry and passes them to the anaerobic digesters.

The gas generated is collected and stored in balloons until further use. Bio Manure is obtained, apart from the gas, as a by-product. In a separate tank, biogas is collected and via a pipeline system sent for cooking. The biofuel is then supplied into a 100% biogas generator which is used to power the cold storage rooms, water pumps, shop, street lights, etc.

The Biogas plant funded by the Department of Biotechnology and Department of Agriculture Marketing Telangana, Geetanath (2021) was set up under the guidance and patented technology of CSIR-IICT (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research–Indian Institute of Chemical Technology) executed by the Hyderabad-based Ahuja Engineering Services Pvt Ltd.


Around 30 kg of biofuel generated per day is supplied to the kitchen facilities near the unit. 400- 500 units of electrical power is being utilized by the administrative building, market water supply network, around 100 streetlights, and 170 stalls of the market.

This biogas unit helps reduce the electricity bill by half (previously Rs. 3 lakhs per month on average). The liquid bio manure is being used as fertilizer in the farmers’ fields. Upon realizing its efficiency, the Department of Biotechnology announced further funding to establish five more similar plants in different market yards with varying capacities (Gudimalkapur, Gaddiannaram -5 tons/day, Erragadda, Alwal, Sarrornagar- 500 kgs/ day) suitable for the generated market waste.

This innovative practice of converting waste into energy at Bowenpally vegetable market has created large-scale awareness of the use of a sustainable system to generate biofuel but also encourages more and more cities to take up similar projects for the transformation of the urban landscape.