General Knowledge Current Affairs

Friday, December 22, 2023

Programmes under Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana

The Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Dairying is implementing a flagship scheme namely Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY) with an investment of ₹20050 crore in all the States and Union Territories (UTs) for a period of 5 years with effect from the financial year 2020-21 to FY 2024-25 for holistic development of the fisheries sector in the country. Under this scheme, during the last three financial years (FY 2020-21 to 2022-23), and current financial year (2023-24), fisheries developmental projects of various State Governments, Union Territories and other implementing agencies amounting to of Rs. 17118.62 crore have been approved for overall development of fisheries and aquaculture sector in the country.

The Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY) is designed and implemented to address critical gaps in fish production and productivity, quality, technology, post-harvest infrastructure and management and modernization and strengthening of value chain, traceability, and quality improvement. To modernize and strengthen the fisheries value chain, PMMSY supports the creation of post-harvest infrastructure such as fishing harbors/fish landing centers, cold storages and ice plants, fish transportation vehicles including refrigerated and insulated vehicles, ice flaking and ice crushing units, ice/fish holding boxes, etc. with motorcycles, bicycles and auto rickshaws, value addition enterprise units as well as modern hygienic markets such as wholesale fish markets including supermarkets, retail fish markets and outlets, mobile fish and live fish markets. So far, under PMMSY investments worth Rs. 4005.96 crore have been approved for the above-listed activities during the last three financial years (FY 2020-21 to 2022-23), and current financial year (2023-24).

PMMSY provides for establishment of a robust fisheries management framework and provides need-based support to States/UTs for formulation and implementation of fisheries management plans. Besides, the PMMSY promotes aquaculture, mariculture and post-harvest management and also various economic activities in fisheries, aiming towards enhancement of income and improve the socio-economic condition of fishers and other stakeholders associated with fisheries sector. Under PMMSY financial assistance for livelihood and nutritional support are being provided to 6.0 lakh annually for traditional and socio-economically backward, eligible active marine and inland fishermen families during the fishing ban period, vis-à-vis PMMSY supports insurance coverage to 33.20 lakh fishers and also supports interest subvention scheme for fishing vessels. Additionally under PMMSY 20823.40 hectares of pond area for inland aquaculture, 3942 Biofloc units, 11927 Nos. of Re-circulatory Aquaculture Systems (RAS), 44,408 reservoir cages and 543.7 hectares pens in reservoirs, 1,11,110 units of seaweed rafts and monoline units, 1489 bivalve cultivation units, 562 cold storages, 6542 fish kiosks, 108 value added enterprise units and 25,193 post harvest transportation units have been approved for promotion of aquaculture, mariculture and post-harvest management activities.

Friday, December 1, 2023

Quantum Technology: Future of Industry and Jobs

In recent years, quantum technology has emerged as a fascinating field with the potential to revolutionize various industries. This cutting-edge technology harnesses the principles of quantum mechanics to process information and perform computations at an unprecedented scale. With its immense computing power and advanced capabilities, quantum technology holds the key to solving complex problems that are currently beyond the reach of classical computers. In this article, we will explore the exciting potential of quantum technology and its implications for the future of industry and jobs.

Understanding Quantum Technology

Quantum technology is based on the principles of quantum mechanics, a branch of physics that explains the behavior of matter and energy at the atomic and subatomic levels. Unlike classical computers that rely on binary digits or bits (0s and 1s), quantum technology leverages quantum bits or qubits, which can exist in multiple states simultaneously thanks to a phenomenon called superposition.

Quantum Computing: Unleashing Unprecedented Power

Quantum computing is one of the most promising applications of quantum technology. By harnessing the power of qubits, quantum computers can solve complex problems exponentially faster than classical computers. This has significant implications for various industries, such as drug discovery, optimization, and financial modeling, where large-scale computations are required.

Quantum Cryptography: Enhancing Data Security

Data security is a paramount concern in today's interconnected world. Quantum cryptography provides a solution by leveraging the unique properties of quantum mechanics to secure communication channels. Quantum encryption algorithms offer unparalleled protection against eavesdropping and hacking attempts, ensuring the confidentiality of sensitive information.

Quantum Sensing: Unlocking New Frontiers

Quantum sensing involves using quantum technology to measure and detect physical quantities with unparalleled precision. This has applications in fields such as navigation, imaging, and environmental monitoring. Quantum sensors can provide accurate and real-time data, enabling advancements in areas like self-driving cars, medical diagnostics, and earthquake detection.

Quantum Simulation: Advancing Scientific Discovery

Simulating complex quantum systems is an arduous task for classical computers. Quantum simulation, powered by quantum technology, allows scientists to simulate and understand the behavior of quantum systems more effectively. This has the potential to revolutionize materials science, drug design, and fundamental physics research.

Quantum Communication: Enabling Secure Information Transfer

In an era where information is transmitted globally, secure communication is of utmost importance. Quantum communication, facilitated by quantum technology, provides a way to transmit information securely through quantum key distribution. This technology ensures that any interception or tampering attempts are immediately detectable, safeguarding sensitive data during transmission.

Quantum Technology and Industry: Transforming Key Sectors

Quantum technology has the potential to revolutionize several key industries. In the healthcare sector, quantum computing can accelerate drug discovery, enable personalized medicine, and optimize healthcare logistics. In finance, quantum algorithms can enhance portfolio optimization, risk analysis, and fraud detection. Additionally, quantum sensing can revolutionize navigation, enabling precise location tracking for autonomous vehicles and drones.

Quantum Technology and Jobs: Creating New Opportunities

As quantum technology continues to advance, it will create new job opportunities across various sectors. Quantum scientists, engineers, and researchers will be in high demand to develop and optimize quantum hardware and software. Additionally, industries will require professionals skilled in harnessing quantum technology to address complex challenges and drive innovation.

Challenges and Limitations of Quantum Technology

Despite its immense potential, quantum technology faces several challenges and limitations. One major obstacle is the delicate nature of qubits, which are highly sensitive to environmental disturbances. Maintaining qubit stability and reducing errors is crucial for practical quantum computing. Additionally, scaling up quantum systems to handle large-scale problems remains a significant technical challenge.

Ethical Considerations and Future Developments

As with any emerging technology, quantum technology raises ethical considerations. Quantum computers, if developed at scale, could potentially break current encryption methods, posing risks to data security. It is essential to address these concerns proactively and develop robust security measures. Looking ahead, researchers are exploring hybrid approaches that combine classical and quantum computing to overcome current limitations.


Quantum technology is poised to revolutionize the future of industry and jobs. Its applications span across various sectors, offering unprecedented computing power, enhanced data security, precise sensing capabilities, and secure communication channels. As this field continues to advance, it is crucial to address technical challenges, ethical concerns, and develop a skilled workforce to unlock the full potential of quantum technology.


Q. How does quantum technology differ from classical technology?
Quantum technology relies on the principles of quantum mechanics, enabling the processing of information and computations at a scale beyond the capabilities of classical technology. It harnesses the unique properties of quantum systems, such as superposition and entanglement, to achieve remarkable advancements.

Q. What industries can benefit from quantum technology?
Quantum technology has applications across various industries, including healthcare, finance, transportation, telecommunications, and materials science. It can revolutionize drug discovery, optimize financial modeling, enhance navigation systems, and secure communication channels, among many other possibilities.

Q. Will quantum technology replace classical computers?
Quantum technology is not expected to replace classical computers entirely. Instead, it complements classical computing by tackling complex problems that are currently infeasible for classical computers. Quantum computers excel in solving certain types of problems, while classical computers remain efficient for everyday computing tasks.

Q. Are there any limitations to quantum technology?
Yes, quantum technology faces challenges such as qubit stability, environmental disturbances, and scalability. Maintaining the delicate nature of qubits and reducing errors is crucial for practical quantum computing. Scaling up quantum systems to handle large-scale problems is an ongoing technical challenge.

Q. How can individuals prepare for the future of quantum technology?
To prepare for the future of quantum technology, individuals can consider pursuing careers in quantum science, engineering, and research. Developing expertise in quantum algorithms, quantum software development, and quantum hardware optimization will be in high demand as the field continues to evolve.