General Knowledge Current Affairs

Tuesday, June 14, 2011



Plants and flowers not only provide aesthetic beauty to our gardens and freshen up our lives, but also act as important scientific material for our basic needs and medicines. Plant breeding technicians provide technical support and services to botanists and other professionals working in agricultural and plant biology. They research, methods and ways of improving plant breeding. They produce new or improved plant and crop varieties better suited to environmental conditions and commercial needs.

Plants are chemical factories that produce all kinds of products useful to humans. Besides food, plants provide raw materials for paper, building materials, solvents and adhesives, fabrics, medicines, and many other products. For example, aloe vera plants are used in creams and healing solutions. Therefore, plant breeding technicians will work on growing specific plants for specific purposes. They also test the chemicals produced by different plants to help scientists find new uses for them. For example, we use some other plant chemicals to treat certain types of cancer.


Since the field is so broad, plant breeding technicians may specialize in various areas such as plant genetics, conservation work, environmental biology, limnology (the study of freshwater plants, animals and chemistry), mycology (the study of fungi), or taxonomy and systematic (the classification of plants and their relationships). Some focus their work on field studies, searching for new species to perform experi-ments, while others study the ecology of plants, which is the interaction of plants with other organisms and the environment.

Plant breeding technicians that perform conservation work use their botanical knowledge to help manage parks, forests, rangelands, wilderness areas and breed specific plants within an ecosystem. Public health and environmental protection professionals depend on their understanding of plant science to help solve pollution problems. Some plant breeding technicians organize and participate in field inventories, documenting species for various types of studies. Others work primarily in research and teaching. The results of plant breeding research has increased and improved our supply of medicines, foods, fibers, building materials, and other plant products.


Plant breeding technicians must have an interest in nature and an appreciation for all forms of plant life. They should be quick learners and should have the ability to work outdoors for extended periods of time. They should also have a serious concern for the environment, and interest in protecting and breeding endangered plant species. Most plant breeding technicians have  the ability to work both alone or in teams. They should have strong communication skills, both written and oral, and enjoy synthesizing biological information.


Plant breeding technicians usually require completion of a one or two-year college programme in botanical techno-logy or plant breeding technology. Certification in plant breeding/botanical technology or in a related field is available through associations of technologists and technicians and may be required by some employers. Usually, a two-year period of supervised work experience is required before certification as a plant breeding technician.       

A post graduation in Genetics and Plant Breeding or a Ph.D in Genetics and Plant Breeding is preferred. These courses are offered exclusively in the Agricultural Colleges. A graduate degree in Agriculture is essential to pursue post graduate course. The field is also open for post graduates in Botany. Botany students have to study basic courses of Agriculture in addition to the courses in Plant Breeding.


•   Set up, operate and maintain laboratories for botanical breeding and  research
•   Care for plants and make sure they stay healthy
•   Assist in genetic research of plant breeding
•   Collect specimens and samples, and grow cultures of micro-organisms
•   Prepare specimens for examination and perform experiments
•   Write reports on results and findings
•   Check the quality of plants
•   Set up and maintain instruments and equipment


•    As a breeder
•    Park Ranger
•    Plant Pathologist
•    Ecologist
•    Professor/Teacher
•    Farming Consultant
•    Researcher
•    Horticulturist
•    Nursery Manager

Source :
Career in Plant breeding, Career cope in Plant Breeding

Friday, May 20, 2011

58th National Film Awards

The National Award for best actor will be shared by Tamil cinema''s Dhanush and Malayalam actor Salim Kumar for their work in "Aadukalam" and "Adaminde Makan Abu", respectively.
Marathi actress Mitalee Jagtap Paradhar won the National Award for best actress for her performance in the movie "Baboo Band Baaja".
Best cinematographer award has been awarded to Madhu Ambat, while best audiography went to Ishqiya.
''Moner Manush'' by filmmaker Goutam Ghosh won the ''Best Film on national Integration'', while Malayalam movie ''Adaminte Makan Avu'' won the ''Best Feature Film'' award.
Champions'', a Marathi motion picture bagged the National Award for ''Best Film on Social Issues''.

Salman Khan-starrer Dabangg got the 58th National Award for wholesome entertainment,
Vishal Bhardwaj's rural drama "Ishqiya" Thursday won four National Awards -- including awards for best music for the director and best female playback singer for his wife Rekha Bhardwaj.
There were two technical awards for the film -- while Kamod Karade won best audiography location sound recordist, Debajit Changmai was named best re-recordist of the final mixed track.
Journalist Avijit Ghosh's book 'Cinema Bhojpuri' finds a special mention in the "Best Writing on Cinema" category. The citation on Avijit's book says: "Often dismissed as a poor cousin of mainstream Hindi cinema, Bhojpuri cinema, however has many interesting cultural strains that Avijit Ghosh has laid bare. Any one conversant with life in North Bihar and East Uttar Pradesh, or in many lands far beyond, would recognize the importance of this 'subaltern' effort."
'Champions', a Marathi motion picture bagged the National Award for 'Best Film on Social Issues'.
'Rekha bharadwaj gets best female playback singer for Ishqiya'.

Friday, May 6, 2011

History of Punjab

The Rule Of Sikhs

The Punjab presented a picture of chaos and confusion when Ranjit Singh took the control of Sukerchakias misalthis was achieved through delegation as the sikhs were unable to take the moghuls out. The edifice of Ahmed Shah Abdali's empire in India had crumbled. Afghanistan was dismembered. Peshawar and Kashmir though under the suzerainty of Afghanistan had attained de facto independence. The Barakzais were now masters of these lands. Attock was ruled by Wazrikhels and Jhang lay at the feet of Sials. The Pashtuns ruled Kasur. Multan had thrown off the yoke and Nawab Muzaffar Khan was now ruler.

Both Punjab and Sind had been under Afghan rule since 1757 when Ahmed Shah Abdali was granted suzerainty over these provinces. However, the Sikhs were now a rising power in Punjab. Taimur Khan, a local Governor, was able to expel the Sikhs from Amritsar and raze the fort of Ram Rauni. His control was short-lived, however, and the Sikh misal joined to defeat Taimur Shah and his Chief minister Jalal Khan. The Afghans were forced to retreat and Lahore was occupied by the Sikhs in 1758. Jassa Singh Ahluwalia proclaimed the Sikh's sovereignty and assumed leadership, striking coins to commemorate his victory.

While Ahmed Shah Abdali was engaged in a campaign against the Marathas at Panipat in 1761, Jassa Singh Ahluwalia plundered Sirhind and Dialpur, seized towns in the Ferozepur district, and took possession of Jagraon and Kot Isa Khan on the opposite bank of the Sutlej. He captured Hoshiarpur and Naraingarh in Ambala and levied tribute from the chief of Kapurthala. He then marched towards Jhang. The Sial chief offered stout resistance. However, when Ahmad Shah left in February 1761, Nawab Jassa Singh Ahluwalia again attacked Sirhind and extended his territory as far as Tarn Taran. When he crossed the Bias and captured Sultanpur in 1762, Ahmad Shah again appeared and a fierce battle took place. The ensuing holocaust was called Ghalughara. Following the rout of Sikh forces, Nawab Jassa Singh fled to the Kangra hills. After the departure of Ahmad Shah Abdali, Nawab Jassa Singh Ahluwalia again attacked Sirhind, razing it and killiing the Afghan Governor Zen Khan. This was a great victory for the Sikhs who now ruled all of the territory around the Sirhind.

Ahmad Shah died in June 1773. After his death the power of the Afghans declined in the Punjab. Taimur Shah ascended the throne at Kabul. By then the Misls were well established in the Punjab. They controlled territory as far as Saharnpur in the east, Attock in the west, Kangra Jammu in the north and Multan in the south. Efforts were made by Afghan rulers to dislodge the Sikhs from their citadels. Taimur Shah attacked Multan and temporarily defeated the Dhillon Sardars of the Bhangi misl. The Dhillon Sardars controlled the Dhillon principality and the powerful Bhangi misl army (the most powerful of all the misl at this time), Lehna Singh, and Sobha Singh were driven out of Lahore in 1767 by the Abdali, but soon reoccupied it. They remained in power in Lahore until 1793 the year when Shah Zaman acceded to the throne of Kabul.

The first attempt at conquest by Shah Zaman was in 1793. He came to Hasan Abdal from which he sent an army of 7000 cavalry under Ahmad Shah Shahnachi but the Sikhs routed them. It was a great setback to Shah Zaman, but in 1795 he reorganized forces and again attacked Hasan Abdal, This time he snatched Rohtas from the Sukerchikias, whose leader was Ranjit Singh. Singh suffered at Shah Zaman's hands but did not lose courage. However, Shah Zaman had to return to Kabul as an invasion of his country from the west was apprehended. When he returned, Ranjit Singh dislodged the Afghans from Rohtas.

Shah Zaman did not sit idle. In 1796 he crossed the Indus for the third time and planned to capture Delhi. His ambition knew no bounds. By now he had raised an Afghan army of 3000 men. He was confident a large number of Indians would join him. Nawab of Kasur had already assured him help. Sahib Singh of Patiala betrayed his countrymen and declared his intentions of helping Shah Zaman. Shah Zaman was also assured of help by the Rohillas, Wazir of Oudh, and Tipu Sultan of Mysore. The news of Shah Zaman's invasion spread quickly and people began fleeing to the hills for safety. Heads of Misals, though bound to give protection to the people as they were collecting Rakhi tax from them, were the first to leave the people in lurch. By December Shah Zaman occupied territory up to Jhelum. When he reached Gujarat, Sahib Singh Bhangi panicked and left the place.

Next Shah Zaman marched on the territory of Ranjit Singh. Singh was alert and raised an army of 5000 horsemen. However, they were inadequately armed with only spears and muskets. The Afghans were equipped with heavy artillery. Ranjit Singh foresaw a strong, united fight against the invaders as he came to Amritsar. A congregation of Sarbat Khlasa was called and many Sikh sardars answered the call. There was general agreement that Shah Zaman's army should be allowed to enter the Punjab and that the Sikhs should retire to the hills.

Forces were reorganized under the command of Ranjit Singh and they marched towards Lahore. They gave the Afghans a crushing defeat in several villages and surrounded the city of Lahore. Sorties were made into the city at night in which they would kill a few Afghan soldiers and then leave under cover of darkness. Following this tactic they were able to dislodge Afghans from several places. In 1797 Shah Zaman suddenly left for Afghansistan as his brother Mahmud had revolted. Shahanchi khan remained at Lahore with a sizeable army. The Sikhs followed Shah Zaman to Jhelum and snatched many goods from him. In returning, the Sikhs were attacked by the army of Shahnachi khan near Ram Nagar. The Sikhs routed his army. It was the first major achievement of Ranjit Singh. He became the hero of the land of Five Rivers and his reputation spread far and wide.

Again in 1798 Shah Zaman attacked Punjab to avenge the defeat of 1797. The Sikh people took refuge in the hills. A Sarbat Khalsa was again called and Sada Kaur persuaded the Sikhs to fight once again to the last man. This time even Muslims were not spared by Shah Zaman's forces and he won Gujarat easily. Sada Kaur roused the Sikhs sense of national honour. If they were to again leave Amritsar, she would command the forces against the Afghans. She said that an Afghani soldier was no match for a Sikh soldier. In battle they would acquit themselves, and, by the grace of Sat Guru, would be successful. The Afghans plundered the towns and villages as they had vowed and declared that they would exterminate the Sikhs. However, it was the Muslims who suffered most as the Hindus and Sikhs had already left for the hills. The Muslims had thought that they would not be touched but their hopes were dashed and their provisions forcibly taken from them by the Afghans.

Shah Zaman requested that Raja Sansar Chand of Kangra refuse to give food or shelter to the Sikhs. This was agreed. Shah Zaman attacked Lahore and the Sikhs, surrounded as they were on all sides, had to fight a grim battle. The Afghans occupied Lahore in November 1798 and planned to attack Amritsar. Ranjit Singh collected his men and faced Shah's forces about eight kilometres from Amritsar. They were well-matched and the Afghans were, at last, forced to retire. Humiliated, they fled towards Lahore. Ranjit Singh pursued them and surrounded Lahore. Afghan supply lines were cut, crops were burnt and other provisions plundered so that they did not fall into Afghan's hands. It was a humiliating defeat for the Afghans. Nizam-ud.din of Kasur attacked the Sikhs near Shahdara on the banks of the Ravi, but his forces were no match for the Sikhs. Here too, it was the Muslims who suffered the most. The retreating Afghans and Nizam-ud-din forces plundered the town, antagonizing the local people.

The Afghans struggled hard to dislodge the Sikhs but in vain. The Sikh cordon was so strong that it was impossible for the Afghans to break it and proceed towards Delhi. Ranjit Singh terrorized the Afghans. The moment Zaman Shah left, Ranjit Singh pursued his forces and caught them unawares near Gujranwala. They were chased further up to Jhelum. Many Afghans were put to death and their weapons and supplies taken. The rest fled for their lives. Shah Zaman was overthrown by his brother and was blinded. He became a helpless creature, who, twelve years later, came to the Punjab to seek refuge in Ranjit Singh's darbar. Singh was now ruler of the land. Ranjit Singh combined with Sahib Singh of Gujrat (Punjab) and Milkha Singh Pindiwala and a large Sikh force. They fell upon the Afghan garrison while Shah Zaman was still in vicinity of Khyber Pass. The Afghan forces fled north after having been routed by the Sikhs, leaving behind their dead, including the Afghan deputy, at Gujarat." (Bikramjit Hasrat, Life and times of Ranjit Singh, p.36)

By this time the people of the country had become aware of the rising strength of Ranjit Singh. He was the most popular leader of the Punjab and was planning to enter Lahore. Victims of oppression, the people of Lahore were favorably disposed towards Singh who they saw as a potential liberator. Muslims joined Hindu and Sikh residents of Lahore in making an appeal to Singh to free them from the tyrannical rule. A petition was written and was signed by Mian Ashak Muhammad, Mian Mukkam Din, Mohammad Tahir, Mohammad Bakar, Hakim Rai, and Bhai Gurbaksh Singh. It was addressed to Ranjit singh, requesting him to free them from the Bhangi sardars. They begged Singh to liberate Lahore as soon as possible. He mobilised an Army of 25,000 and marched towards Lahore on July 6, 1799.

It was a last day of Muharram when a big procession was to be held in the town in the memory of the two grandsons of the Prophet Muhammad who had been martyred on the battlefield. It was expected that the Bhangi sardars would also participate in the procession and mourn with their Shia brethren. By the time procession was over Ranjit Singh had reached the outskirts of city. In the early morning of July 7, 1799, Ranjit Singh's men took up their positions. Guns glistened and bugles were sounded. Rani Sada Kaur stood outside Delhi Gate and Ranjit Singh proceeded towards Anarkali. Ranjit Singh rode along the walls of the city setting mines. The wall was breached. This created panic and confusion. Mukkam Din, who was one of the signatories to the petition made a proclamation, accompanied by drumbeats, stating that he had taken over the town and was now in charge. He ordered the city gates to be opened. Ranjit Singh entered the city with his troops through the Lahori Gate. Sada Kaur and a detachment of cavalry entered through Delhi gate. Before the Bhangi sardars realized it, a part of the citadel had been occupied without resistance. Sahib Singh and Mohar Singh left the city and sought protection. Chet Singh was left to either to fight to defend the town or flee. He shut himself in Hazuri Bagh with 500 men. Ranjit Singh's cavalry surrounded Hazuri Bagh. Chet Singh surrendered and was given permission to leave the city along with his family.

Ranjit Singh was now well-entrenched. Immediately after taking possession of the city, he paid a visit to Badshahi Mosque. This gesture increased his prestige in the eyes of people. He won the hearts of his subjects, Hindu, Muslim, and Sikh alike. It was July 7, 1799 when the victorious Ranjit Singh entered Lahore. Ranjit Singh ultimately acquired a kingdom in the Punjab which stretched from the Sutlej River in the east to Peshawar in the west, and from the junction of the Sutlej and the Indus in the south to Ladakh in the north. Ranjit died in 1839, and a succession struggle ensued. Two of his successor maharajas were assassinated by 1843.

Sikh Empire (1799-1849)

* Maharaja Ranjit Singh (b.1780, Crowned April 12, 1801, d.1839)

* Kharak Singh (b.1801, d.1840), Eldest son of Ranjit Singh.

* Nau Nihal Singh (b.1821, d.1840), Grandson of Ranjit Singh.

* Sher Singh (b.1807, d.1843), Son of Ranjit Singh.

* Duleep Singh (b.1838, Coronated 1843, d.1893), Youngest son of Ranjit Singh.

The British in Punjab

By 1845 the British had moved 32,000 troops to the Sutlej frontier, to secure their northernmost possessions against the succession struggles in the Punjab. In late 1845, British and Sikh troops engaged near Ferozepur, beginning the First Anglo-Sikh War. The war ended the following year, and the territory between the Sutlej and the Beas was ceded to Great Britain, along with Kashmir, which was sold to Gulab Singh, who ruled Kashmir as a British vassal.

As a condition of the peace treaty, some British troops, along with a resident political agent and other officials, were left in the Punjab to oversee the regency of Maharaja Dhalip Singh, a minor. The Sikh army was reduced greatly in size. In 1848, out-of-work Sikh troops in Multan revolted, and a British official was killed. Within a few months, the unrest had spread throughout the Punjab, and British troops once again invaded. The British prevailed in the Second Anglo-Sikh War, and under the Treaty of Lahore in 1849, the Punjab was annexed by the British East India Company, and Dhalip Singh was pensioned off. The Punjab became a province of British India, although a number of small states, most notably Patiala, retained local rulers who recognized British sovereignty. In every way, the Punjab was Great Britain's most important asset in colonial India. Its political and geographic predominance gave Britain a base from which to project its power over more than 500 princely states that made up India. Lahore was a center of learning and culture under British rule, and Rawalpindi became an important Army installation.

The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre of 1919 occurred in Amritsar. In 1930, the Indian National Congress proclaimed independence from Lahore. The 1940 Lahore Resolution of the Muslim League to work for Pakistan, made Punjab the centerstage of a different, bloodier and dirtier struggle. In 1946, massive communal tensions and violence erupted between the majority Muslims of Punjab, and the Hindu and Sikh minorities. The Muslim League attacked the government of Unionist Punjabi Muslims, Sikh Akalis and the Congress, and led to its downfall. Unwilling to be cowed down, Sikhs and Hindus counter-attacked and the resulting bloodshed left the province in great disorder. Both Congress and League leaders agreed to partition Punjab upon religious lines, a precursor to the wider partition of the country. The British Punjab province, which includes present-day Punjab province of Pakistan, and the Indian states of Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh, was partitioned in 1947 between the newly-independent states of India and Pakistan.

The Punjab of India and Pakistan

Eastern parts of Gurdaspur district in the northern point of the province adjoining Kashmir were given to India, with a small Muslim majority of 51% partitioned along the Ravi river leaving only Shakargarh sub-division on the Pakistani side, thus making the eastern half minority Muslims part of India. The state of Jammu and Kashmir had a land link with this part which according to some might have influenced that state's decision to join India. During the partition, over 1 million people were killed indiscrminately and with medieval brutality. Women were raped and murdered, children massacred and the elderly brutalized. No Muslim could walk freely in Amritsar or Delhi, the former seat of the Mughal Empire.

Sikhs demanded a Punjabi speaking East Punjab with autonomous control. Led by Master Tara Singh, Sikhs wanted to obtain a political voice in their state. In 1965, a fierce war broke out between India and Pakistan over the disputed region of Kashmir, but owing to the treacherous geography of the state, and the open nature of hostilities, the fiercest fighting took place in Punjab. At a region called the Assal Uttar (Real North), thousands of Pakistani and Indian tanks fought terrifying battles. Thousands of Pakistani's lost their lives, the Indian forces directly threatened Lahore with mortar and artillery fire. Owing to the extreme proximity of Pakistan's most important city to the border, the Pakistani army concentrates its forces and strengths to the maximum in this thin stretch of land. In 1971 the Pakistani's were completely routed and surrendered to the Indian high command at Dacca. In 1966, owing to the tremendous bravery shown by thousands of Sikh officers and soldiers in the Indian Army, the Government divided the Punjab into a Sikh-majority state of the same name, and Hindu-majority Haryana and Himachal Pradesh. Sikhs form about 60% of the population.

In the 1970s, the Green Revolution swept India. Punjab's agricultural production trebled, and so did the prosperity of its people. For such a small state to be called the bread-basket for a country of more than a billion people, is like a goldfish being classified a leviathan. Industrialization swept the state and the state remains the ones of the economic leaders of the entire country. Punjabi culture also predominates the national art, media, music and film industries. Punjabis, especially Sikhs, form a major part of the Armed Services. In the early 1980s, a small group of Sikh fundamentalists sought the Punjabi state to be made independent of India. Led by Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale, a young priest, small bands of militants began attacking policemen, military sites and government and army officials. In the Holy Harimandir Sahib in Amritsar, Bhindranwale broadcast and published his calls for independence. Bhindranwale was supported by Sikhs from all over the Punjab and Delhi, as well as Sikhs outside India. A vast majority of Sikhs in the Punjab and outside it supported the call for independence.

The Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, who had tried to use and manipulate Bhindranwale, authorized an Army take-over of the Harimandir Sahib area. In Operation Bluestar, executed in 1984, thousands of Indian soldiers raided the Temple to flush out thousands of militants holed up in it. During the action, major damage was inflicted to the temple complex. The militants were killed or arrested, but the Operation cost the lives of 300 soldiers and thousands of innocent civilians, many of whom were known to be innocent worshipers by the Indian army. The bloody and unpopular operation invited major criticism of the Gandhi government. The Gandhi government was the only country in modern times that had attacked a faiths most holiest of shrines. Outrage now broke lose in the mainstream of Sikh society. Outraged young Sikhs spread disorder around the Punjab and in Delhi. In October 1984, just two months after Bluestar, Indira Gandhi's own two Sikh bodyguards assassinated her in revenge for the attack on the Holy Harimandir Sahib in Amritsar. The Indian Army commander was similarly assassinated.

Bloodthirsty mobs took to the streets of Delhi following Gandhi's murder. For the first time in history, Hindus and Sikhs were involved in a feud against each other. More than 25,000 Sikhs were brutally murdered by mobs. The Government acted quickly, imposing martial law in the disturbed areas. Over the next three years, tough police action destroyed the insurgency, and fresh political overtures in the early 1990s did much to calm the state. Although some political suspicion still remains, Sikhs and Hindus have healed their common wounds and bridged the divides. The Sikh fundamentalists have either been driven out of the country or reduced to the margins of politics. However, little was done by the Indian government to redress the thousand of Sikhs killed and many more who lost their homes in the 1984 mob violence. Many of the politicians, police as well as Indian MPs are known to the government for helping anti-Sikh mobs kill innocent people, yet they have never been prosecuted or questioned.

The 1990s brought much prosperity to India's Punjab. In 2004, Dr. Manmohan Singh became the country's first Sikh Prime Minister.  The Wagah border post, is the chief crossing point between India and Pakistan. The Samjhauta (Understanding) Express runs between Atari, in Indian Punjab, to Lahore in Pakistan, as does the Delhi-Lahore bus. The Government of Pakistan allows small numbers of Sikhs to visit religious sites in Pakistani Punjab. The Indian Government allowed 3,000 Pakistani Sikhs to cross over recently, at the 300th anniversary of the founding of the Khalsa.

Wednesday, April 27, 2011

News of this week – Current Affairs

Civil rights activist Dr Binayak Sen, recently freed on bail by the Supreme Court in a sedition case, has been honoured with the 2011 Gwangju Prize for Human Rights, South Korea's most prestigious award for those working on peace, democracy and justice in Asia. The award was announced yesterday by 2011 Gwangju Prize Committee in Seoul.

Today April 22 International Mother Earth Day that is intended to inspire awareness and appreciation for the Earth's natural environment. Earth Day was founded by United States Senator Gaylord Nelson as an environmental teach-in first held on April 22, 1970

Indian-American physician Dr Siddhartha Mukherjee's acclaimed book on cancer, 'The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer,' has won the prestigious 2011 Pulitzer Prize in the general non-fiction category.

Mr. Vijay has been selected as chairman  of Indian Olympic Association after Mr. Kalmadi ‘s  dismiss.

Saturday, April 9, 2011

Important Days - National and International

Jan 1 Army Medical Corps Establishment Day
Jan 8 African National Congress Foundation Day
Jan 10 World Laughter Day
Jan 11 Death anniversary of Lal Bahadur Shastri
Jan 12 National youth Day (Birth Day of Swami Vivekanand)
Jan 15 Army Day
Jan 23 Netaji Subhashchandra Bose's birth anniversary
Jan 25 International Customs Duty Day, India Tourism Day, Indian Voter Day
Jan 26 Republic Day
Jan 28 Birth anniversary of Lala Lajpat Rai
Jan 30 (Martyr's day) Mahatma Gandhi's Martyrdom Day; World Leprosy Eradication Day
Jan 31 World Leprosy Eradication Day
Feb 2 Natinal Day of Srilanka, World Wetlands Day
Feb 5 Kashmir Day (Organised by Pakistan)
Feb 13 Sarojini Naidu's Birth Anniversary
Feb 14 St. Valentine's Day
Feb 24 Central Exise Day
Feb 28 National Science Day
Mar 3 Natinal Defence Day
Mar 4 National Security Day
Mar 8 International Women's Day
Mar 9 CISF Raising Day
Mar 12 Mauritius Day; Central Industrial Security Force Day
Mar 15 World Consumer Day
Mar 16 National Vaccination Day
Mar 19 World Disabled Day
Mar 21 World Forestry Day
Mar 22 World Day of Water
Mar 23 World Meterological Day
Mar 24 World TB Day
Mar 26 Bangaladesh Liberation Day
April 1 Orissa Day
April 5 Natinal Meritime Day
April 7 World Health Day
April 13 Jallianwallah Bagh Massacre Day (1919)

For more Important Days

Friday, April 1, 2011

Abbreviations & Acronyms

Short Name Full Form or Abbreviations
3G Third Generation
AAA Asian Athletics Association
AAFI The Amateur Athletics Federation of India
AC Ante Christum (Before Christ), Ashok Chakra, Air Conditioner
ADB Asian Development Bank
AFI Athletics Federation of India
AFMC Armed Forces Medical College
AI Artifical Intelligence, Air India
AICTE All India Council for Technical Education
AIFF All India Football Federation
AIIMS All India Institute of Medical Science
AITUC All India Trade Union Congress
ALGOL Algebric Oriented Language
AM Ante Meridiem (before Noon), Amplitude Modulation
APEC Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation
ARPANET Advanced Research Project Agency Network
ASCII American Standard Code for Informa­tion Interchange
ASEAN Association of South East Asian Na­tions
ASLV Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle
AT&T American Telegraphic and Telephone Co. Ltd.
ATC Air Traffic Control
ATM Automated Teller Machine
AVSM Ati Vishisht Seva Medal
B2B Busines to Business
B2C Business to Consumer
BARC Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
BBC British Broadcasting Corporation
BBS Bulletin Board Service
BC Before Christ
BHEL Bharat Heavy Electri-cals Ltd
BIOS Basic Input Output System
BIT Binary Digit
BPL Below Poverty Line
BPO Business Process Outsourcing
BPR Business Process Re-engineering
bps bytes per second
BSE Bombay Stock Exchange
BSF Border Security Force
BSNL Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited
C2C Consumer to Consumer
CA Chartered Accountant
CAD Com­puter Aided Design
CAT Common Admis­sion Test
CBI Central Bureau of Investigation
CBSE Central Board of Secondary Education
CDAC Centre for the Development of Ad­vanced Computing
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access
CEO Chief Executive Officer
CFSL Central Forensic Science Laboratory
CGI Common Gateway Interface
CIA Central Intelligence Agency
CID Criminal Investigation Department
CISC Complex instruction-set computing
CITU Centre of Indian Trade Unions
CNN Cable News Network
COMSAT Communications Satellite Corporation
COPRA Consumer Protection Act
CORBA Common Object Request Broker Architecture
CPI(M) Communist Party of India / Marxist
CPWD Central Public Works Department
CRIS Centre for Railway Information System
CSIR Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
CTBT Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty
CYMK Cyan, Yellow, Magenta, Kinda

For more Abbreviations & Acronyms

Sunday, March 27, 2011

Famous Books and Writers for Your Competitive Exams

Book's Name Author's Name
A Gift of Monotheists Ram Mohan Roy
A Minister and his Responsibilities Morarji Bhai Desai
A Nation is Making Surendra Nath Bandhopadhye
A Pair of Blue Eyes Thomash Hardy
A Passage to India E. M. Foster
A Revenue Stamp (autobiography) Amrita Pritam
A Strange and Sublime Address Amit Choudhary
A Suitable Boy Bikram Seth
A Tale of Two Cities Charls Dikens
A Voice of Freedom Nayantara Shehgal
A week with Gandhi L. Fischer
Adventures of Sherlock Homes Arther Canon Doel
All the Prime Minister's Men Janardan Thakur
Allahabad Prasasti Harisen
Amukta Malyad Krishna Deva Raya
An Unknown Indian Nirod C. Choudhary
Anand Math Bankim Chandra Chattopadhaye
Anna Karenina Leo Tolstoy
Aparajito Bibhuti Bhushan Bandopadhyay
Apple Cart G. B. Shaw
Aranyak Bibhuti Bhushan Bandopadhyay
Arogyaniketan Tarashankar Bandopadhyay
Astyadhaye Panini
Bakul Katha Ashapurna Devi
Ban Palashir Padabali Ramapada Chowdhury
Bandit Queen Mala Sen
Bela Obela Kalbela Jibanananda Das
Bengali Zamindar Nilmoni Mukherjee
Bicramanchadev Bilhon
Blind Beauty Boris Pasternak
Buddhacharit Asha Ghosh
Captive Lady Michel Madhusudan Dutta
Causes of the Indian Mutiny Sir Syyed Ahmed Khan
Charitraheen Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay
Chidambara S. N. Panth
Circle of the Region Amitabha Ghosh
City of Job Charnak Nisith Ranjan Roy
Commedy Errors Shekhspear
Conversations with Myself Nelson Mandela
Coolie Mulkraj Anand
Crisis of India Ronal Segal
Das Capital Karl Marks
Death of President W. Marchent
Decamaren Bocachio
Desert Village Oliver Goldsmith
Devdas Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay
Devi Chaudharani Bankim Chandra Chattopadhaye
Devine Comedi Dante
Divine Life Sivanand
Economic History of India Ramesh Chandra Dutta
End and Means Huxlay
Faust Goethe
Ferary Queen Edmond Spensar
Freedom at Midnight Lapierre & Collins
Friend Not Master Ayub Khan

For more books info visit  Books and Writers

Monday, February 28, 2011

Sahitya Akademi Awards for 2010.


Eight books of poetry, four novels, three collections of short stories, four works of criticism, one travelogue, an autobiography and a play were among the literary works in 22 languages that have won the Sahitya Akademi Awards for 2010.

The awards announced here on Monday were recommended by jury members representing 22 languages, and approved by the Executive Board of Sahitya Akademi which met under the chairmanship of its president Sunil Gangopadhyay.

The poets honoured are Aurobindo Uzir (Bodo), Arun Sakhardande (Konkani), Gopi Narayan Pradhan (Nepali), Vanita (Punjabi), Mangat Badal (Rajasthani), Mithila Prasad Tripathi (Sanskrit), Laxman Dubey (Sindhi) and Sheen Kaaf Nizam (Urdu).

The novelists who have won the award are Bani Basu (Bengali), Esther David (English), Dhirendra Mehta (Gujarati) and M. Borkanya (Manipuri).

Uday Prakash (Hindi), Nanjil Nadan (Tamil) and Manoj (Dogri) have won the awards for their short story collections.

Keshada Mahanta (Assamese), Rahamath Tarikere (Kannada), Basher Bashir (Kashmiri) and Ashok R. Kelkar (Marathi) won the awards for their books of criticism.

The other winners are the former Union Minister M.P. Veerendra Kumar (Malayalam) for his travelogue, Pathani Pattnaik (Oriya) for his autobiography and playwright Bhogla Soren (Santhali).

Sahitya Akademi secretary Agrahara Krishna Murthy said the awards for Telugu and Maithili would be announced in a few weeks. He said the books were selected on the basis of recommendations made by a three-member jury in the respective languages.

The awards, which include a cash prize of Rs.1 lakh, will be presented to the winners on February 15 next year during the Festival of Letters in the capital. The festival will also include a seminar on the works of Rabindranath Tagore.

Mr. Murthy said the Akademi is instituting the Yuva Sahitya Puraskar for debutant writers in Indian languages under the age of 35 from next year. Earlier this year, the Akademi had instituted the Bala Sahitya Puraskar for writers of children's literature.

    Career in Pharmaceutical Technology

    The Indian pharmaceutical companies continue expanding their base despite the slow down. The pharmaceutical industries in India seem to be more stable compared to other industries and they would continue with their impressive performance.

    According to available figures the size of the Indian Pharmaceutical industries is poised to grow from Rs. 30,200 crore in 2007 to Rs. 33,500 crore in 2008 and further to Rs. 140, 000 crore in 2020. India is known as pharmacy of the whole world especially to third world countries. The country exports pharmaceuticals to more than 200 countries including USA, Russia, Germany, United Kingdom and Brazil. India is the leading supplier of AIDS drugs to the world. Pharmaceutical exports (valued in US dollar terms) registered an impressive growth rate at 30.7 % terms during April – October 2008 compared to corresponding period in the previous year. This growth further increases to 38.5 % when valued in rupees terms. Not withstanding the fears of a global recession, pharma exports are expected to grow by 25.2 % in 2008-2009. The Department of Pharmaceuticals estimated to have creation of 5 lakh new jobs within next four years involving investment of Rs. 5,000-10,000 crore through public – private partnership model.

    Drug approvals given to Indian pharmaceutical firms were 30% of total generic approvals given by USA Drug Regulatory Authority (USFDA) in 2008 while the share was 26.5 % in 2007. The trend is likely to continue as Indian companied account for 35 % of all Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) approvals given by USFDA in first two months of 2009. ANDA is an application for a generic drug approval for an existing licensed medication or an approved drug. With over US dollar worth 47 billion drugs are expected to go off patent by 2011, promising further growth in generic medicine market.

    Pharmaceutical industries usually employ pharmacy graduates and post graduates for most of the operations.  The various activities include manufacturing, quality control (including quality assurance), and distribution (marketing). The expertise required to perform all these activities are usually the course programme of Pharmaceutical Sciences or Pharmaceutical Technology. Pharma being knowledge based industry; special skills are required for all these operations or activities. The available career opportunities for pharmacy graduates in pharmaceutical industries and government/private sector include:

          * As Manufacturing Chemist (called as competent technical staff): under whose active direction and personal supervision manufacturing of medicines takes place. The pharmaceutical production companies need such persons to obtain license for manufacturing. Graduates of pharmacy with 18 months of experience in manufacturing are treated as competent technical staff under Drugs and Cosmetics Act which regulates the Drug Industries. This job of looking after manufacturing of medicines is very interesting and responsible. There are scopes of promotion too to the highest position as works manager or factory manager.
          * In Quality Control/Quality Assurance: Quality Assurance is a total process for assuring the quality of pharmaceutical products as per standard specified in National or other approved pharmacopoeias. Quality Assurance is a component of Quality Assurance programme which deals with checking of representative samples of production to find out their compliance with standards. The graduates with aptitude in analysis of pharmaceuticals and handling of sophisticated instruments find the job interesting. There are promotional scopes too from Quality Control chemists to Quality Assurance Manager.

      There are private and independent drug testing laboratories too. The graduate pharmacist can join these laboratories as analyst.

          * In Marketing: Pharmaceutical marketing is different from marketing of other consumer goods. Here, real consumer, the patient, has little or no choice. The marketing takes place through doctors and chemists. Thus the job is more challenging and requires special skill and training as they deal with highly qualified doctors in one hand and the professional business man (often called drug trader in common terminology). This is a never saturating professional area and jobs are available always. The sales personal are called as medical representatives or business executives. They can grow from medical representatives to general manager.
          *  In regulatory affairs: The medicines are not only required to be effective but must be safe and of assured quality. In order to assure efficacy, safety and quality, the entire pharmaceutical scenario, from manufacturing to sale of medicines, is regulated by the central and state government through a process of licensing and inspecting. The pharmaceutical graduates can join the government services usually through public service commission as Drugs Inspectors. They have promotional scopes to grow up to the rank of Drugs Controller.
          * As Hospital Pharmacists: The pharmacists in hospitals do wide range of functions ranging from procurement of medicines to dispensing to the patients. In short they are responsible for medicine management in the hospitals. Though legally Diploma in Pharmacy qualification is sufficient for medicine dispensing, the degree pharmacists are preferred in procurement system in government sector and service sector in corporate hospitals. The promotional scope in this sector is limited.
          * As Community Pharmacist (working in Drug Store or Retail Pharmacy):  Our medical systems are well developed and are on par with any developed country. But this community pharmacy sector is still in primitive stage. In western countries community pharmacists are well paid and many of pharmacists who have migrated to UK or USA work in community pharmacy. The scenario of community pharmacy now started changing in India too. Many chain stores are entering into the market. Diploma in Pharmacy qualified pharmacists. Like hospital pharmacy sector, the graduate pharmacists too started entering into the retail business as entrepreneur.  Self owning pharmacy in a good location not only gives good revenues but also provides ample opportunities to provide professional pharmaceutical services to the consumers. A license from the state Drugs Control Authority is necessary start a retail pharmacy business.
          * As Government Analyst: The medicines that have been sampled either from manufacturing units or retail drug stores are tested in government drug testing laboratories. The graduate pharmacists can join these government laboratories as government analyst. But the graduate pharmacists do need to under go training on testing of drugs under a government analyst or in approved laboratories.

    Sunday, January 9, 2011

    Bollywood Screen Awards 2010

    Screen Awards: Udaan Best Film, Salman Khan-Vidya Balan Best Actor-Actress

    Year 2010's mega blockbuster Dabangg bagged a total of six awards with superstar Salman Khan getting the Best Actor Award for his fitting portrayal of a fearless rustic cop. Best Playback Singer (female) went to Mamta Sharma for chart buster 'Munni Badnaam Hui'. The song also got Farah Khan the trophy for the Best Choreography. Vidya Balan won the Best Actress Award for her feisty role as a widow in Ishqiya. Newcomers Sonakshi Sinha and Ranveer Singh bagged the most promising female and male award for Dabangg and Band Baaja Baraat respectively. The Promising Newcomer Director Award went to Manish Sharma for his film on two wedding planners.

    Shahrukh Khan and Katrina Kaif were adjudged as Best Actor and Actress in the popular choice category for their performances in My Name is Khan and Raajneeti respectively. The special Ramnath Goenka Award also went to the Khan-Kajol starrer.