General Knowledge Current Affairs

Showing posts with label Career Scope. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Career Scope. Show all posts

Friday, April 27, 2012

Human rights as a career

Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, irrespective of nationality, place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, color, religion, language, or any other status. We are all equally entitled to our human rights without discrimination. These rights are interrelated, interdependent, and indivisible.

Universal human rights are often expressed and guaranteed by law, in the form of treaties, customary international law, general principles, and other sources of international law. International human rights law lays down obligations to act in certain ways or to refrain from certain acts, in order to promote and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms of individuals or groups.

Human Rights legislation commonly contains:

  • Security rights that protect people against crimes such as murder, massacre, torture, and rape
  • Liberty rights that protect freedoms in areas such as belief and religion, association, assemblies, and movement
  • Political rights that protect the liberty to participate in politics by expressing themselves, protesting, voting, and serving in public office
  • Due process rights that protect against abuse of the legal system such as imprisonment without trial, secret trials, and excessive punishment
  • Equality rights that guarantee equal citizenship, equality before the law, and non-discrimination
  • Welfare rights (also known as economic and social rights) that require the provision of education and protection against severe poverty and starvation
  • Group rights that provide protection for groups against ethnic genocide and for the ownership by countries of their national territories and resources

Violation of Human Rights

According to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, fundamental rights are violated when:

  • A Certain, Creed or a group is denied recognition as a “person” (Article 2)
  • Men and Women are not treated as equal (Article 2)
  • Different Racial or Religious groups are not treated equally (Article 2)
  • Life, liberty, or security of a person are threatened (Article 3)
  • A person is sold as or used as a slave (Article 4)
  • Cruel, inhuman, or degrading punishment is used on a person (such as torture or execution) (Article 5)
  • Punishments are dealt arbitrarily or unilaterally, without a proper and fair trial (Article 11)
  • Arbitrary  interference into personal, or private lives by agents of the state (Article 12)
  • Citizens are forbidden to leave their country (Article 13)
  • Freedom of Speech or religion are denied (Article 18 & 19)
  • The right to join a trade union is denied (Article 23)
  • Education is denied (Article 26)

Monday, January 2, 2012

Career Opportunities In Horticulture

The term “horticulture” comprises the cultivation of fruits and vegetables, ornamental flowers, medicinal and aromatic plants and their post-harvest management. Presently our country is next to China in area and production of fruits and vegetable crops and  has been contributing 10% of fruits and 14% of vegetable of the total world production.  India leads the world in the production of mango, banana, sapota, acid lime and cauliflower while the highest productivity of grape is also recorded here. India occupies second position in production of onion and third in cabbage production globally.  Fruits such as mango, banana, citrus, guava and apple account for 75 per cent of the total fruit production in the country. India produces about 70 different varieties of various vegetables. The horticulture sector constituted nearly 20 per cent of agricultural GDP and contributes 4 per cent in the national economy. Despite having all the favourable factors, the desired level of development in horticulture has not been achieved because of a number of constraints like low productivity of many fruits and vegetables than international averages. Non availability of good planting material, lack of post harvest management and less value addition etc.. As of today, horticulture is considered, one of the fastest growing sectors in agriculture and is a thrust area to stimulate agricultural growth, spurred by the changing domestic food habits towards more nutritious food and increasing overseas demand. The area and production under horticulture crops was 12.77 million hectares and 96.56 million tonnes respectively during 1991-92 after that a huge spurt in horticulture has arisen and it reached to 20.66 million hec area and 223.8 mt production by 2010 (NHB).

For more about horticulture visit :

Tuesday, June 14, 2011



Plants and flowers not only provide aesthetic beauty to our gardens and freshen up our lives, but also act as important scientific material for our basic needs and medicines. Plant breeding technicians provide technical support and services to botanists and other professionals working in agricultural and plant biology. They research, methods and ways of improving plant breeding. They produce new or improved plant and crop varieties better suited to environmental conditions and commercial needs.

Plants are chemical factories that produce all kinds of products useful to humans. Besides food, plants provide raw materials for paper, building materials, solvents and adhesives, fabrics, medicines, and many other products. For example, aloe vera plants are used in creams and healing solutions. Therefore, plant breeding technicians will work on growing specific plants for specific purposes. They also test the chemicals produced by different plants to help scientists find new uses for them. For example, we use some other plant chemicals to treat certain types of cancer.


Since the field is so broad, plant breeding technicians may specialize in various areas such as plant genetics, conservation work, environmental biology, limnology (the study of freshwater plants, animals and chemistry), mycology (the study of fungi), or taxonomy and systematic (the classification of plants and their relationships). Some focus their work on field studies, searching for new species to perform experi-ments, while others study the ecology of plants, which is the interaction of plants with other organisms and the environment.

Plant breeding technicians that perform conservation work use their botanical knowledge to help manage parks, forests, rangelands, wilderness areas and breed specific plants within an ecosystem. Public health and environmental protection professionals depend on their understanding of plant science to help solve pollution problems. Some plant breeding technicians organize and participate in field inventories, documenting species for various types of studies. Others work primarily in research and teaching. The results of plant breeding research has increased and improved our supply of medicines, foods, fibers, building materials, and other plant products.


Plant breeding technicians must have an interest in nature and an appreciation for all forms of plant life. They should be quick learners and should have the ability to work outdoors for extended periods of time. They should also have a serious concern for the environment, and interest in protecting and breeding endangered plant species. Most plant breeding technicians have  the ability to work both alone or in teams. They should have strong communication skills, both written and oral, and enjoy synthesizing biological information.


Plant breeding technicians usually require completion of a one or two-year college programme in botanical techno-logy or plant breeding technology. Certification in plant breeding/botanical technology or in a related field is available through associations of technologists and technicians and may be required by some employers. Usually, a two-year period of supervised work experience is required before certification as a plant breeding technician.       

A post graduation in Genetics and Plant Breeding or a Ph.D in Genetics and Plant Breeding is preferred. These courses are offered exclusively in the Agricultural Colleges. A graduate degree in Agriculture is essential to pursue post graduate course. The field is also open for post graduates in Botany. Botany students have to study basic courses of Agriculture in addition to the courses in Plant Breeding.


•   Set up, operate and maintain laboratories for botanical breeding and  research
•   Care for plants and make sure they stay healthy
•   Assist in genetic research of plant breeding
•   Collect specimens and samples, and grow cultures of micro-organisms
•   Prepare specimens for examination and perform experiments
•   Write reports on results and findings
•   Check the quality of plants
•   Set up and maintain instruments and equipment


•    As a breeder
•    Park Ranger
•    Plant Pathologist
•    Ecologist
•    Professor/Teacher
•    Farming Consultant
•    Researcher
•    Horticulturist
•    Nursery Manager

Source :
Career in Plant breeding, Career cope in Plant Breeding