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Tuesday, September 19, 2023

The Evolution of BRICS Summits: A Decade of Global Impact

Exploring the BRICS Summit Series and Its Significance

Over the past decade, the BRICS summits have played a pivotal role in shaping global diplomacy and cooperation. These meetings, attended by the leaders of Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa, have addressed a wide range of crucial issues, from international financial stability to climate change and development aid. In this article, we will delve into the evolution of the BRICS summits, highlighting their key themes and outcomes.

The 1st BRIC Summit: Yekaterinburg, Russia, June 2009

The journey of BRICS summits began in Yekaterinburg, Russia, in June 2009, when the inaugural BRIC Summit took place. Leaders from the member nations gathered to discuss pressing international matters, including global financial issues, G20 affairs, and cooperation within the BRIC framework. This historic meeting resulted in a Joint Statement that emphasized the need for enhanced representation of emerging markets and developing countries in international financial institutions. Additionally, a BRIC Joint Statement on Global Food Security was endorsed, underlining the group's commitment to addressing global challenges.

The 2nd BRIC Summit: Brasilia, Brazil, April 2010

Building on the success of the first summit, the second BRIC Summit convened in Brasilia, Brazil, in April 2010. The leaders continued their discussions on international issues, including the international financial crisis and regional hotspots. They also advanced their cooperation within the BRIC framework, marking the initial establishment of the BRICS cooperation mechanism. This pivotal meeting witnessed the launch of the BRIC entrepreneur forum, the BRIC inter-bank cooperation mechanism, the BRIC cooperative forum, and a think tank conference.

The 3rd BRICS Summit: Sanya, China, April 2011

In April 2011, the BRICS Summit entered a new phase as South Africa joined the group, transforming it into BRICS. The summit, themed "Broad Vision, Shared Prosperity," centered on discussions about the international economy, finance, and development issues. The leaders adopted the Sanya Declaration, a significant milestone in the group's history. The summit also featured supporting events such as the BRICS think-tank conference, the BRICS Inter-Bank Cooperation Mechanism Annual Meeting and Finance Forum, the BRICS Business Forum, and the BRICS Economy and Trade Ministers’ Conference.

The 4th BRICS Summit: New Delhi, India, March 2012

New Delhi, India, hosted the fourth BRICS Summit in March 2012 under the theme "BRICS Partnership for Global Stability, Security, and Prosperity." Leaders adopted the Delhi Declaration, underscoring the critical role played by BRICS countries in the world economy, particularly in the aftermath of the global financial crisis.

The 5th BRICS Summit: Durban, South Africa, March 2013

The fifth BRICS Summit, held in Durban, South Africa, in March 2013, carried the theme "BRICS and Africa: Partnership for Development, Integration, and Industrialization." This gathering marked a turning point, with the establishment of the BRICS New Development Bank and Contingency Reserve Arrangement. Additionally, the BRICS Business Council and BRICS Think Tank Council were founded. The summit also hosted the first BRICS Outreach Dialogue with African leaders.

The 6th BRICS Summit: Fortaleza, Brazil, July 2014

Under the theme "Inclusive Growth: Sustainable Solutions," the sixth BRICS Summit convened in Fortaleza, Brazil, in July 2014. Leaders adopted the Fortaleza Declaration, which witnessed the Agreement on the Establishment of the New Development Bank and the Treaty for the Establishment of a BRICS Contingency Reserve Arrangement. BRICS Leaders engaged in a dialogue with leaders of South American countries, further expanding their outreach.

The 7th BRICS Summit: Ufa, Russia, July 2015

The seventh BRICS Summit was hosted in Ufa, Russia, in July 2015, under the theme "BRICS Partnership - a Powerful Factor of Global Development." Leaders adopted the Ufa Declaration and Action Plan, and the summit saw the signing of various agreements, including the BRICS Inter-Governmental Agreement on Cooperation in the Field of Culture. BRICS Leaders engaged in dialogues with the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), Shanghai Cooperation Organization members, and other guest countries.

The 8th BRICS Summit: Goa, India, October 2016

In October 2016, the BRICS leaders gathered in Goa, India, under the theme "Building Responsive, Inclusive, and Collective Solutions." The leaders adopted the Goa Declaration and Plan of Action, and key agreements were signed, such as the Memorandum of Understanding on the Establishment of the BRICS Agricultural Research Platform. The summit also featured dialogues with the Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC).

The 9th BRICS Summit: Xiamen, China, September 2017

The ninth BRICS Summit took place in Xiamen, China, in September 2017, focusing on "BRICS: Stronger Partnership for a Brighter Future." Leaders adopted the Xiamen Declaration and Action Plan, and this summit marked the first BRICS Dialogue with Leaders of Emerging Markets and Developing Countries.

The 10th BRICS Summit: Johannesburg, South Africa, July 2018

Johannesburg, South Africa, hosted the tenth BRICS Summit in July 2018, with the theme "BRICS in Africa: Collaboration for Inclusive Growth and Shared Prosperity in the Fourth Industrial Revolution." Leaders adopted the Johannesburg Declaration and Plan of Action, reinforcing their commitment to inclusive growth. This summit also featured an informal Leaders Retreat and dialogues with leaders of the Southern African Development Community and other global South organizations.

The 11th BRICS Summit: Brasilia, Brazil, November 2019

In November 2019, the eleventh BRICS Summit was held in Brasilia, Brazil, under the theme "BRICS: Economic Growth for an Innovative Future." Leaders adopted the Brasilia Declaration, underscoring their dedication to economic growth and innovation. The summit also featured engagements with the BRICS Business Forum, BRICS Business Council, and the New Development Bank.

The 12th BRICS Summit: Virtual Meeting, November 2020

The global landscape changed significantly in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In response, the twelfth BRICS Summit was held virtually in November 2020, themed "BRICS Partnership for Global Stability, Shared Security, and Innovative Growth." Leaders addressed the pandemic's impact and adopted the Moscow Declaration. Reports from the President of the New Development Bank and other BRICS cooperation mechanisms were also received.

The 13th BRICS Summit: Virtual Meeting, September 2021

Continuing the virtual format, the thirteenth BRICS Summit took place in September 2021 under the theme "BRICS@15: Intra BRICS cooperation for continuity, consolidation, and consensus." Leaders adopted the New Delhi Declaration, reflecting on BRICS' achievements and welcoming the Joint Statement on Strengthening and Reforming the Multilateral System adopted in 2021.

The 14th BRICS Summit: Virtual Meeting, June 2022

The fourteenth BRICS Summit occurred virtually in June 2022, with the theme "Foster High-quality BRICS Partnership, Usher in a New Era for Global Development." Leaders adopted the Beijing Declaration and welcomed initiatives such as cooperation on supply chains and a strategy on food security. The summit also addressed the situation in Ukraine, advocating for dialogue and mediation. Additionally, a virtual High-Level Dialogue on Global Development took place, reinforcing the commitment to implement the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

In conclusion, the BRICS summits have evolved over the years, playing a crucial role in global diplomacy and cooperation. These gatherings have addressed a wide array of global challenges and have resulted in significant agreements and declarations that continue to shape the international landscape. As the BRICS partnership moves forward, it remains a powerful force for global development and collaboration.

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