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Showing posts with label SCO. Show all posts
Showing posts with label SCO. Show all posts

Saturday, March 25, 2023

Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO): A Background

The SCO is an inter-governmental regional organization of Central Asia or Eurasia. It was established in 2001 in the present form. Its primary objective is to promote cooperation among members for peace stability and prosperity in the region. At present, it has eight members. Iran has joined as its 9th member; which will be admitted as full member in 2023.

The SCO was originally formed in 1996 as Shanghai Five by five countries- Kazakhstan, China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan. Shanghai Five (1996) emerged from a series of border demarcation and demilitarization talks which the four former Soviet republics held with China to ensure stability along the borders. With the joining of Uzbekistan in 2001, it was renamed as SCO. India and Pakistan joined in 2017. India's membership was supported by Russia, which China supported Pakistan's membership as a counterbalance to India's accession.

The SCO Charter was adopted in 2022 and came into force in 2003. Its Head¬quarter is located in Beijing, China. RATS or Regional Anti-Terrorism Structure is the permanent body of the SCO. The RATS is located in Tashkent, Uzbekistan and works a permanent organ for addressing the challenge of terrorism and extremism in the region.

India joined first as an Observer in 2005 and elevated to the position of permanent membership in 2017. The Chairmanship of SCO is rotated among mem¬bers in alphabetical order. Thus, India has become the Chair of SCO for the year 2023. It means the next summit of the SCO will be held in India in 2023. The Summit is the highest decision-making body of the SCO.